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Maltechnik: Ölmalerei

Als Malgrund dient in der Regel eine Temperaschicht auf Holz oder Leinwand in weiß oder in Form einer Untermalung, auf die pastose, deckende, halbdeckende, „nass-in-nass“ oder lasierende Ölfarben mit Pinsel oder (vor allem in der Moderne) mit Malspachtel und direkt aus der Tube Ölfarbe aufgebracht werden.

Die lange Trocknungszeit des Malmittels erlaubt es, dass die Farben relativ lang vermalbar und damit korrigierbar bleiben. Dass die Ölmalerei als „klassische Königsdisziplin“ der Kunst gilt, liegt vor allem an den guten Eigenschaften des überwiegend verwendeten Malmittels Leinöl (fast immer zusammen mit Terpentin).

Um dessen Eigenschaften weiter zu verbessern und um bei der Alterung Rissbildung und Vergilben zu vermeiden, wird das Gemälde nach vollständiger Trocknung und Aushärtung (oft erst nach über 1 Jahr) meist mit einem Firnis überzogen – man unterscheidet hierbei Zwischenfirnisse und Schlussfirnisse.


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