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Die Aquarell-Technik

Ein Aquarell (von lat. aqua Wasser) ist ein mit wasserlöslichen, nicht deckenden Farben angefertigtes Bild. Dabei werden die aus einem Bindemittel (Gummi arabicum) und Farbpigmenten bestehenden lasierenden Farben mit Wasser verdünnt und mit einem Haarpinsel auf Papier, Pergament oder andere Materialien aufgetragen. Im Unterschied zu wasserlöslichen Deckfarben, wie sie oft im Schulunterricht verwendet werden, oder der verwandten Gouache schimmert der Malgrund durch die Farben hindurch.

Das Malen mit wasserlöslichen Farben gehört zu den ältesten Maltechniken überhaupt. Bereits die Höhlenmalerei ist unter Einsatz von einfachen Pinseln und in Wasser und Fett gelöstem Hämatit oder Holzkohle entstanden. Aus Ägypten ist bemaltes Papyrus erhalten, und aus dem asiatischen Raum Bilder und Kalligraphie mit wasserlöslichen Tuschen.

In der Regel waren diese Wasserfarben deckend bzw. wurden mit deckender, weißer Farbe eingedickt, so zum Beispiel in der mittelalterlichen Wandmalerei und bei der Miniaturmalerei.

Die Aquarellmalerei im engeren Sinne (als Maltechnik unter Verwendung lasierender Farben) hat sich etwa seit dem 9. Jahrhundert n. Chr. kontinuierlich entwickelt. Zunächst wurden diese lasierenden Wasserfarben für die Kolorierung von Tuschezeichnungen

und Holzschnitten verwendet. Maler wie Albrecht Dürer (siehe Abb. 1) und Rembrandt haben Aquarelle vor allem zu Studienzwecken oder zur Vorbereitung von Ölgemälden verwendet. Als eigenständige und wertvolle Kunstwerke wurden Aquarelle nicht angesehen. Durch Dürers zahlreiche private Studien mit Aquarell- und Gouachefarben erlebte das Malen mit Wasserfarben aber eine deutliche Aufwertung.

Zur einer breiten Anerkennung kam es aber erst im 18. Jahrhundert, als englische Maler wie William Turner begannen, Aquarellfarben nicht bloß zur Ausgestaltung von Zeichungen zu verwenden, sondern Bilder direkt auf dem Malgrund entwickelten. Insbesondere Turner, der bis heute als einer der bedeutendsten Aquarellisten gilt, hat die Aquarellmalerei zu technischer Meisterschaft geführt.

Als im Laufe des 19. Jahrhunderts die Freiluftmalerei an Bedeutung gewann, setzte eine breite Wiederentdeckung des Malens mit wasserlöslichen Farben ein. In England förderten Water Colour Societies den Einsatz dieser Maltechnik. Zahlreiche Maler haben Aquarelle als eigenständige Kunstwerke geschaffen. Neben Dürer und Turner sind hier vor allem Eugène Delacroix, Paul Cézanne und Emil Nolde zu nennen.

Maria Sibylla Merian, die für ihre Arbeiten auch die Technik des Aquarellierens verwendete, war sogar einmal der 500-DM-Schein gewidmet.

In der Aquarellmalerei kommen zahlreiche Techniken zum Einsatz, deren Bezeichnung aber uneinheitlich sind. In der Regel sind die Techniken Variationen zweier Grundtechniken: Lasieren und Lavieren. Ihnen zugrunde liegt wiederum ein bestimmter Umgang mit Malgrund, Pinsel und Farbe. Aus ihnen entsteht bei allen Unterschieden im Detaill das Charakteristische eines Aquarells.


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